pterostichite gradeKipling Will
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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Historically these taxa have generally been placed together. Most studies suggest that the included taxa are close relatives, but it is unlikely that this is a monophyletic group relative to other Harpalinae.
There is no clear set of synapomorhies for the group, and so members are Harpalinae that lack the derived features of other groups in the subfamily. Typically, they are medium to large species, very rarely under 4mm in length, often heavy to massively built. Most have two supraorbital setae and a prominently developed and externally visible elytral plica (but there are many exceptions). For most species the female reproductive tract has glabrous gonocoxites or gonocoxites that have relatively few rather large setae.
Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
As noted above this is not likely a monophyletic group, and there is no clear, prefered set of relationships among its members. Cnemalobini is probably related to some or all Morionini (Roig-Juñent & Flores 1995; Liebherr & Will 1998), and some structures of the female reproductive tract and external morphology suggest Chaetodactylini are likely to be related to Morionini (Will 2003) as well. However, other structures of the female reproductive tract suggest that Chaetodactylini and Michrocheilini may be sister-taxa, though the external morphology is strikingly different in the two groups. Drimostomatini + Cratocerini probably form a clade, and this could be sister to the Gondwanalox clade. Melanchitonini and Zabrini are likely to be related to taxa within Pterostichini, which probably is a grade rather than a clade, in Harpalinae.
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University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
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Page: Tree of Life pterostichite grade. Authored by Kipling Will. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 07 July 2006
- Content changed 07 July 2006
Citing this page:
Will, Kipling. 2006. pterostichite grade. Version 07 July 2006 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/pterostichite_grade/51493/2006.07.07 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/