SpirulidaRichard E. Young
- Spirulidae Owen, 1836
- Cretaceous spirulids
Note: this taxon list is still under construction. It does not yet contain all known Spirulida subgroups.
IntroductionA single living species is presently recognized in the Spirulida. It is found in oceanic waters throughout the worlds tropical and subtropical oceans generally in association with land masses. A substantial fossil record, however, exists.
Bruun, A. F. 1943. The biology of Spirula spirula (L.). Dana-Report No. 24. 49pp.
Clarke, M. R. 1969. Cephalopoda collected on the SOND cruise. J.Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 49: 961-976.
Clarke, M. R. 1970. Growth and development of Spirula spirula. Jour. Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K. 50: 53-64.
Herring, P. J., M. R. Clarke, S. von Boletzky and K. P. Ryan. 1981. The light organs of Sepiola atlantica and Spirula spirula (Mollusca: Cephalpooda): bacterial and intrinsic systems in the order Sepioidea. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 61: 901-916.
Naef, A. 1922 -- Die Fossilen Tintenfische. Gustav Fischer, Jena. 322 pp.
Schmidt, J. 1922. Live specimens of Spirula. Nature, 110, No. 2271.
Young, R. E., M. Vecchione and D. Donovan. 1998. The evolution of coleoid cephalopods and their present biodiversity and ecology. South African Jour. Mar. Sci., 20: 393-420.
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- Content changed 04 July 2012
Citing this page:
Young, Richard E. 2012. Spirulida http://tolweb.org/Spirulida/19989/2012.07.04 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Spirulida . Version 04 July 2012.