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Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
Sipunculidea (Sipunculidae , Golfingiiformes), Sipunculidae (Sipunculus , Xenosiphon , Siphonosoma , Siphonomecus , Phascolopsis), and Phascolosomatidae (Phascolosoma , Apionsoma , Antillesoma) of Cutler (1994) are most likely not monophyletic (Maxmena et al. 2003, Schulze et al. 2007).
Cutler, E. B. 1994. The Sipuncula, their systematics, biology, and evolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Cutler, E. B. and P. E. Gibbs. 1985. A phylogenetic analysis of higher taxa in the phylum Sipuncula. Systematic Zoology 34:162-173.
Edmonds, S. J. 2000. Phylum Sipuncula. Pages 375–400 in: Polychaetes & Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia, vol. 4A, Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula. P. L. Beesley, G.J.B. Ross, and C.J. Glasby, eds. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Ferrier, D. and P. W. H. Holland. 2001. Sipunculan ParaHox genes. Evol. Dev. 3:263-70
Huang, D. Y., J.-Y. Chen, J. Vannier, and J. I. Saiz Salinas. 2004. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 271(1549):1671-1676.
KennetLundin, K. and C.Schander. 2003. Epidermal ciliary ultrastructure of adult and larval sipunculids (Sipunculida). Acta Zoologica 84(2):113-119.
Maxmena, A. B., B. F. King, E. B. Cutler and G. Giribet. 2003. Evolutionary relationships within the protostome phylum Sipuncula: a molecular analysis of ribosomal genes and histone H3 sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27(3):489-503.
Rice, M. E. 1985. Sipuncula: developmental evidence for phylogenetic inference. Pages 274-296 in The Origins and Relationships of Lower Invertebrates. S. C. Morris, J. D. George, R. Gibson and H. M. Platt, eds. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Rice, M. E. 1993. Sipuncula. Pages 238–325 in: Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Vol. 12: Onychophora, Chilopoda, and Lesser Protostomata. F. W. Harrison and M. E. Rice, eds. Wiley-Liss, New York.
Schulze, A., E. B. Cutler and G. Giribet. 2005. Reconstructing the phylogeny of the Sipuncula. Hydrobiologia 535/536:277–296.
Schulze, A., E. B. Cutler and G. Giribet. 2007. Phylogeny of sipunculan worms: A combined analysis of four gene regions and morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42(1):171-192.
Information on the Internet
- Edward B. Cutler's home page has links to more information about Sipuncula.
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- Content changed 09 January 2008
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Tree of Life Web Project. 2008. Sipuncula. Peanut Worms. Version 09 January 2008 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Sipuncula/2487/2008.01.09 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/