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Sea spiders, Pantopoda

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taxon links extinct icon extinct icon extinct icon extinct icon extinct icon Not MonophyleticNot Monophyletic[down<--]Arthropoda Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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Relationships of extant groups after Arango 2002.
Containing group: Arthropoda

Other Names for Pycnogonida


Arango, C. P. 2002. Morphological phylogenetics of the sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida). Organisms Diversity & Evolution 2:107-125.

Arango, C. P. 2003. Molecular approach to the phylogenetics of sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) using partial sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28:588-600.

Arnaud, F. and R. N. Bamber. 1987. The biology of Pycnogonida. Advances in Marine Biology 24:1-96.

Bain, B. A. 2003. Larval types and a summary of postembryonic development within the pycnogonids. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 43:193-222.

Bamber, R. N. 2007. A holistic re-interpretation of the phylogeny of the Pycnogonida Latreille, 1810 (Arthropoda). Pages 295-312 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A., eds. Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668:1–766.

Bamber, R. N. and M. H. Thurston. 1995. The deep-water pycnogonids (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) of the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 115:117-162.

Bergström, J., W. Stürmer, and G. Winter. 1980. Palaeoisopus, Palaeopantopus and Palaeothea, pycnogonid arthropods from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate, West Germany. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 54:7-54.

Child, C. A. 1998. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Pycnogonica (Sea Spiders). National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Biodiversity Memoirs 109:1-71.

Fahrenbach, W. H. 1994. Microscopic anatomy of Pycnogonida. 1. Cuticle, epidermis, and muscle. Journal of Morphology 222:33-48.

Fry, W. G. 1978. A classification within the pycnogonids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 63:35-38.

Hedgpeth, J. W. 1978. Reappraisal of Palaeopantopoda with description of a species from Jurassic. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 63:23-34.

King, P. E. 1973. Pycnogonids. Hutchinson & Co., London.

Siveter, D. J., M. D. Sutton, D. E. G. Briggs, and D. J. Siveter. 2004. A Silurian sea spider. Nature 431:978-980.

Staples, D. A. 1997. 21. Sea spiders or pycnogonids (Phylum Arthropoda). Pages 1040-1072 in Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia, Part III. S. A. Shepherd and M. Davies, eds. South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide.

Stock, J. H. 1994. Indo-west pacific Pycnogonida collected by some major oceanographic expeditions. Beaufortia 1:17-77.

Vilpoux, K. and D. Waloszek. 2003. Larval development and morphogenesis of the sea spider Pycnogonum litorale (Ström, 1762) and the tagmosis of the body of Pantopoda. Arthropod Structure and Development 32:349-383.

Waloszek, D. and J. Dunlop. 2002. A larval sea spider (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from the Upper Cambrian 'Orsten' of Sweden, and the phylogenetic position of pycnogonids. Palaeontology 45:421-446.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Nymphon gracile
Location Hitra, Norway
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Sea spider / Havedderkopp
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2006 Asbjørn Hansen
Scientific Name Pycnogonum stearnsi
Location Fitzgerald Marine Reserve, Moss Beach, California, USA
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Mission Accomplished
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2008 Ken-ichi Ueda
About This Page

Page: Tree of Life Pycnogonida. Sea spiders, Pantopoda. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Pycnogonida. Sea spiders, Pantopoda. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Pycnogonida/2539/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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