Under Construction

Hypolimnas Hübner 1819

The Eggflies and Diadems

Andrew V. Z. Brower
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
  Eggfly (Hypolimnas misippus) mating, Tanzania
Containing group: Junoniini


Hypolimnas is a widespread Old World tropical genus, with several very widely-distributed species. Some species are markedly sexually dimorphic, with the females mimicking Danaus chrysippus and other unpalatable species. In other species, both sexes are Batesian mimics of various danaines.

Hypolimnas bolina is also of interest as one of a few butterfly species that are known to be infected with male-killing Wolbachia (Dyson et al. 2002; Mitsuhashi et a. 2004).

Other Names for Hypolimnas Hübner 1819


Ackery PR, Smith CR, and Vane-Wright RI eds. 1995. Carcasson's African butterflies. Canberra: CSIRO.

Corbet AS, Pendlebury HM, and Eliot JN. 1992. The butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.

Dyson EA, Kamath MK, and Hurst GDD. 2002. Wolbachia infection associated with all-female broods in Hypolimnas bolina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): evidence for horizontal transmission of a butterfly male killer. Heredity 88: 166-171.

Mitsuhashi W, Fukuda H, Nicho K, and Murakami R. 2004. Male-killing Wolbachia in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 112: 57-64.

Parsons M. 1999. The butterflies of Papua New Guinea: their systematics and biology. Academic Press, San Diego.

Vane-Wright RI, and de Jong R. 2003. The butterflies of Sulawesi: annotated checklist for a critical island fauna. Zoologische Verhandelingen 343: 1-267.

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Hypolimnas bolina
Location captive, Itami City Museum of Insects
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source リュウキュウムラサキ。伊丹市昆虫館にて リュウキュウムラサキ(琉ங
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License - Version 2.5.
Copyright © 2005 OpenCage
Scientific Name Hypolimnas misippus
Location Taiwan
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Sex Male
Source IMG_7025_ajs1
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2005 leemt2
Eggfly (Hypolimnas misippus) mating, Tanzania
Scientific Name Hypolimnas misippus
Location Karatu, Tanzania
Comments In this dimorphic species the orange female (above) mimics the distasteful African Monarch (Danaus chrysippus). The black-and-white male (below) is non-mimetic.
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Identified By David Bygott
Behavior Copulating
Sex Male and female
Life Cycle Stage Adult
View Dorsal & lateral
Copyright © 2005
About This Page

Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Andrew V. Z. Brower at

Page: Tree of Life Hypolimnas Hübner 1819. The Eggflies and Diadems. Authored by Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2009. Hypolimnas Hübner 1819. The Eggflies and Diadems. Version 06 May 2009 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Hypolimnas/70315/2009.05.06 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

edit this page
close box

This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box


Page Content

articles & notes



Explore Other Groups

random page

  go to the Tree of Life home page