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Hamadryas Hübner 1806

Andrew V. Z. Brower
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taxon links Phylogenetic position of group is uncertain[down<--]Ageroniini Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Ageroniini


Members of this neotropical genus perch on tree trunks with their wings pressed flat against the bark. The males of some species make an audible clicking sound in flight, which is the source of their colloquial name "crackers."  This feature is lost in some of the derived members of the genus (Garzón-Orduña, 2012).

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

The phylogenetic hypothesis is based on a cladistic analysis of 93 morphological characters using implied weights (Garzón, 2012).

Other Names for Hamadryas Hübner 1806


Garzón-Orduña, I.J. 2012. Phylogenetic evidence for loss of sound production and a shift in sexual recognition signals in Hamadryas butterflies (Nymphalidae: Biblidinae). Systematic Entomology 37, 84-101.

Jenkins, D.W. 1983. Neotropical Nymphalidae I. Revision of Hamadryas. Bull. Allyn Mus. 81, 1-146.

Lamas G ed. 2004. Checklist: Part 4A Hesperioidea - Papiionoidea. Gainesville: Scientific Publishers/Association of Tropical Lepidoptera.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Hamadryas februa
Location Quintana Roo State, Mexico
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Identified By Ivonne Garzón-Orduña
Life Cycle Stage adult
Source #2134041
Source Collection Bugwood Network/Forestry Images
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International
Scientific Name Hamadryas laodamia
Location Amazonia Lodge, Atalaya, Peru
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Identified By Kim Garwood
Behavior puddling on moist sand
Sex Male
Life Cycle Stage adult
Source Starry Night
Source Collection Neotropical Butterflies
Copyright © 2004 Kim Garwood
About This Page

Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Andrew V. Z. Brower at

Page: Tree of Life Hamadryas Hübner 1806. Authored by Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2012. Hamadryas Hübner 1806. Version 21 April 2012 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Hamadryas/70460/2012.04.21 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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