EunicaAndrew V. Z. Brower and Niklas Wahlberg
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The genus Eunica was extensively revised by Jenkins (1990), who also included a cladistic analysis of 55 morphological characters. Species of Eunica are found mainly in South America with a few species found in Central America and the Greater Antilles. The genus comprises 40 currently accepted species (Lamas 2004). The host plants have been recorded for only a few species, but in line with other species in Biblidinae, these are in the plant families Euphorbiaceae and Burseraceae.
According to Jenkins (1990) the diagnostic features of Eunica are:
- Male uncus with a terminal small, usually separate, extended and curved beak
- Male tegumen elongate and often constricted posteriorly
- Male gnathos reduced, narrowed or shortened, rarely with a gnathos arm and rarely fused or joined ventrally
- Forewing with base of costa somewhat angled
- Male wings black or brown usually marked or glossed with iridescent blue, females dimorphic, usually brown with white maculae or band on forewing
Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
The phylogenetic hypothesis for Eunica is based solely on morphological characters at the moment. The tree has a consistency index of 0.40, meaning that many of the characters are homoplasious. Clearly more data (both morphological and molecular) are needed to corroborate the relationships shown. The study by Jenkins (1990) did have several well-supported results. First, he showed that the species Eunica cuvierii (previously placed in the monotypic genus Libythina) belongs in Eunica. Several of the clades in the tree above are supported by unique synapomorphies.
Jenkins, D. W. 1990. Neotropical Nymphalidae. VIII. Revision of Eunica. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 131:1-175.
Lamas, G. (ed) 2004. Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 4A, Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea. Scientific Publishers, Gainsville, Florida.
About This Page
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
University of Turku, Finland
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Andrew V. Z. Brower at and Niklas Wahlberg at
Page copyright © 2006 and Niklas Wahlberg
Page: Tree of Life Eunica Authored by . Andrew V. Z. Brower and Niklas Wahlberg. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 04 October 2006
- Content changed 25 July 2008
Citing this page:
Brower, Andrew V. Z. and Niklas Wahlberg. 2008. Eunica http://tolweb.org/Eunica/70457/2008.07.25 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 25 July 2008 (under construction).