Under Construction

Enoploteuthis Orbigny in Rüppell 1844

Kotaro Tsuchiya
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
The following 11 species are recognized in the genus.
taxon links [up-->]Enoploteuthis jonesi [up-->]Enoploteuthis galaxias [up-->]Enoploteuthis chuni [up-->]Enoploteuthis reticulata [up-->]Enoploteuthis leptura [up-->]Enoploteuthis anapsis [up-->]Enoploteuthis semilineata [up-->]Enoploteuthis obliqua [up-->]Enoploteuthis octolineata [up-->]Enoploteuthis magnoceani [up-->]Enoploteuthis sp. A [up-->]Enoploteuthis higginsi [down<--]Enoploteuthidae Interpreting the tree
close box

This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

example of a tree diagram

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

close box
Containing group: Enoploteuthidae


Enoploteuthis contains the largest species in the family one, at least, can reach 130 mm ML. The species are most easily recognized by their larger tail compared to members of other genera in the family. The size of the tail is emphasized by the absence of fins along its sides. This contrasts with the narrow extension of the fins along the tails of members of related genera.

Brief diagnosis: 

An enoploteuthid ... 


From Young, et al., 1998.
  1. Arms
    1. Suckers present distally on Arms IV.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Manus of club with two series of hooks; marginal suckers absent.

  3. Buccal crown
    1. Typical chromatophores on aboral surface; may have light epithelial pigmentation on oral surface.

  4. Photophores
    1. Tips of arms IV lack enlarged photophores.
    2. Nine to ten photophores on eyeball.
    3. Complex photophores of integument, in life, without red-colored filters.

  5. Fins
    1. Fins terminate well in advance of posterior tip of tail. (see title photograph).

  6. Spermatangia receptacles
    1. Present at posterior junction of funnel-retractor muscles and head-retractor muscles.


Enoploteuthis has only two clearly defined types of integumental photophores in contrast to other enoploteuthid genera which have three types of photophores on the ventral surfaces of the head, funnel and mantle. The most complex type is found in all species examined and seems to be distinctive of the genus.

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Integumental photophores of Enoploteuthis sp., Hawaiian waters. The arrows indicate "simple" photophores, of two sizes, with dark blue centers and a narrow white ring. The remaining five, slightly larger photophores are "complex" filtered photophores that exhibit three different physiological states. The central core in these shows varying degrees of transparency. The bright spot in the core of the most transparent photophore is a reflection off the axial color filter that lies buried in the center of the organ. The small dark spots and reddish patches are chromatophores.

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Ventral view of the ocular photophores (large white organs), beneath the smaller integumental photophores of Enoploteuthis sp, Hawaiian waters. The terminal ocular photophores are larger than the photophores between them. Photophores in the latter group alternate between having light and dark cores. The reason for this is unknown.


This genus consists of two natural groups: subgenus Enoploteuthis, which is characterized by having short, thin tentacles with small, thin clubs and subgenus Paraenoploteuthis, which has relatively long, thick tentacles with robust clubs (Tsuchiya and Okutani, 1988). The difference in the appearance of the tentacle is striking. Details of the club differ as follows:

 Tentacular club
Enoploteuthis (Enoploteuthis)
Enoploteuthis (Paraenoploteuthis)
Carpal locking-apparatus
Very elongate
Nearly circular
Relative hook size between
the two series on manus
Often subequal
Very unequal
Dactylus suckers
2 series
4 series
Ventral protective membrane ("flap") on manus
Two Crest ridges below Hood on upper beak

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Oral views, tentacular clubs. Top - Club with characters of the E. (Enoploteuthis) group. Drawing from Tsuchiya and Okutani (1988). Note that the manus is narrower than the tentacle stalk. Bottom - Club with characters of the E. (Paraenoploteuthis) group. Drawing from Roper (1964). Note that the manus is distinctly broader than the tentacle stalk.

Other features that separate the subgenera include (1) differences in the hectocotylus (single flap on the ventral margin in E. (Enoploteuthis) vs single flaps on both margins in E. (Paraenoploteuthis)) and (2) numerous, small papillae on the oral surfaces arm I-III (present in males of E. (Enoploteuthis), absent in E. (Paraenoploteuthis)).


Burgess, L. A. 1982. Four new species of squid (Oegopsida: Enoploteuthis) from the Central Pacific and a description of adult Enoploteuthis reticulata. Fish. Bull. 80: 703-734.

Roper, C.F.E.1964. Enoploteuthis anapsis, a new species of enoploteuthid squid (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) from the Atlantic Ocean. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean, 14(1):140-148.

Tsuchiya, K. and T. Okutani. 1988. Subgenera of Enoploteuthis, Abralia and Abraliopsis of the squid family Enoploteuthidae (Cephalopoda, Oegopsida). Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo (series A) 14: 119-136.

Young, R. E., L. A. Burgess, C. F. E. Roper, M. J. Sweeney and S. J. Stephen. 1998. Classification of the Enoploteuthidae, Pyroteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae. Smithsonian Contr. to Zoology, 586: 239-255.

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Enoploteuthis sp.
Location Atlantic off USA
Comments Note large tail and termination of fins at base of tail.
Sex Fresh
View Dorsal
Copyright © Ron Gilmer (?)
About This Page

Tokyo University of Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan

All Rights Reserved.

Citing this page:

Tsuchiya, Kotaro. 2015. Enoploteuthis Orbigny in Rüppell 1844. Version 11 October 2015 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Enoploteuthis/19641/2015.10.11 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

edit this page
close box

This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box


Page Content

articles & notes



Explore Other Groups

random page

  go to the Tree of Life home page