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Ralph W. Holzenthal, Roger J. Blahnik, Aysha Prather, and Karl Kjer
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taxon links [up-->]Apataniinae [up-->]Moropsychinae [down<--]Plenitentoria Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Plenitentoria


Apataniidae is a northern and montane group found in North America, Europe, and Asia. The family names dates to Wallengren (1886), but for most of its history it was included as a subfamily of Limnephilidae. Wiggins (1996) treated the group as a distinct family and subsequent workers have accepted this designation. There are nearly 200 species in 18 genera. Four genera, Allomyia Banks (Nearctic and eastern Palearctic, 23 species), Manophylax Wiggins (Nearctic and eastern Palearctic, 6 species), Moselyana Denning (Oregon, monotypic), and Pedomoecus Ross (Pacific northwest of North America, monotypic), form a monophyletic group (Gall 1994) separate from either subfamily.

Apataniid larvae construct cases of small rock pieces, although Manophylax larvae also add plant pieces to the upper surface (Wiggins 2004). Corbet (1966) documented parthenogenesis in some species of Apatania. Larvae occur in cool running waters, but at high elevations and extreme northern latitudes, some species of Apatania are found in lakes. Most larvae graze periphyton from rocks with scraper mandibles. Some species also occur in hygropetric habitats, some of which are dry for much of the year. The larvae of Moselyana are found in spring seepages, and are detritivores with toothed mandibles. (From Holzenthal et al., 2007)


Corbet, P.S. (1966) Parthenogenesis in caddisflies (Trichoptera). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 44, 981982.

Gall, W.K. (1994) Phylogenetic studies in the Limnephilidae with a revision of the World genera of Goeridae (Trichoptera). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto, Toronto, 140 pp.

Holzenthal R.W., Blahnik, R.J., Prather, A.L., and Kjer K.M. 2007. Order Trichoptera Kirby 1813 (Insecta), Caddisflies. In: Zhang, Z.-Q., and Shear, W.A. (Eds). 2007 Linneaus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa. Zootaxa 1668:639698.

Wallengren, H.D.J. (1886) Skandinaviens arter af Trichoptera-familjen Apataniidae. Entomologisk tidskrift, 7380.

Wiggins, G.B. (1996) Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera). University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 457 pp.

Wiggins, G.B. (2004) Caddisflies: the underwater architects. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 292 pp.

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Apatania zonella
Specimen Condition Dead Specimen
Life Cycle Stage Adult
View Lateral
Source Collection Barcode of Life Database (BOLD)
Scientific Name Allomyia sp.
Creator Karl Kjer
Identified By David Ruiter
Life Cycle Stage Larva
Source Collection Barcode of Life Database (BOLD)
About This Page

Ralph W. Holzenthal
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Roger J. Blahnik
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Aysha Prather
Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Karl Kjer
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Ralph W. Holzenthal at , Roger J. Blahnik at , Aysha Prather at , and Karl Kjer at

Page: Tree of Life Apataniidae. Authored by Ralph W. Holzenthal, Roger J. Blahnik, Aysha Prather, and Karl Kjer. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Holzenthal, Ralph W., Roger J. Blahnik, Aysha Prather, and Karl Kjer. 2010. Apataniidae. Version 20 July 2010 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Apataniidae/14617/2010.07.20 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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