Under Construction


Julius Lukes
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
taxon links [up-->]Ichthyobodo necator [up-->]Perkinsiella amoebae Phylogenetic position of group is uncertainPhylogenetic position of group is uncertainPhylogenetic position of group is uncertainPhylogenetic position of group is uncertain[down<--]Kinetoplastida Interpreting the tree
close box

This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

example of a tree diagram

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

close box

Relationships after Simpson et al. (2006).

Containing group: Kinetoplastida


The Prokinetoplastina are a group composed primarily of Ichthyobodo and Perkinsiella, which has been defined only recently on the basis of molecular phylogeny, in particular the spliced leader and SSU RNA genes (Moreira et al., 2004; Simpson et al., 2006). Since the two known representatives are morphologically very different from each other, it is impossible to find features characteristic for this earliest branch within Kinetoplastida. Perkinsiella amoebae is an endosymbiont present in a perinuclear position in another protist, an amoebae of the genus Neoparamoeba parasitizing gills of commercial fish (Dykova et al., 2003). Due to its size and localization in the host cell, Perkinsiella can only be visualized by electron microscopy or by a trained eye in stained histological sections.

Ichthyobodo necator (also called Costia necatrix in the older literature) is an ectoparasite of characteristic drop-like shape found on the gills and skin of freshwater and marine fish. It may cause heavy infections leading to irritation and eventually lethal bacterial infections. With one of its two flagella, Ichthyobodo attaches itself to the host cell.

Several environmental 18S rRNA sequences amplified directly from samples collected close to the deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are also tentatively included to Prokinetoplastina.


Simpson A.G.B., J.R. Stevens and J. Lukeš. 2006. The evolution and diversity of kinetoplastid flagellates. Trends Parasitol. 22: 168-174.

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Ichthyobodo necator and Cyprinus carpio
Comments Ichthyobodo necator parasites in the gill tissue of common carp.
Copyright ©
About This Page

This page is being developed as part of the Tree of Life Web Project Protist Diversity Workshop, co-sponsored by the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) program in Integrated Microbial Biodiversity and the Tula Foundation.

University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Julius Lukes at

All Rights Reserved.

Citing this page:

Lukes, Julius. 2009. Prokinetoplastina. Version 02 January 2009 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Prokinetoplastina/125663/2009.01.02 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

edit this page
close box

This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box


Page Content

articles & notes



Explore Other Groups

random page

  go to the Tree of Life home page